How children live in Germany

How the state makes sure that children can lead a good life.

Children’s rights are to be enshrined in the Basic Law.
Children’s rights are to be enshrined in the Basic Law. FamVeld/istock/Getty Images

Around 13 million children live in Germany, that’s 16 percent of the population. Most live in a family with married parents and have at least one brother or sister.

Care from infancy

Because both parents often work, more and more toddlers are cared for in day-care centres. Since 2013, every child from the age of one has had a legal entitlement to a childcare place. Almost 790,000 children under the age of three attend a day-care facility – much more frequently in the eastern Länder than in the west. At the age of three at the latest, it’s time for kindergarten because regular social contacts are important for a child’s development.

Quick facts
million children

currently live in Germany.


is the usual age at which kids start school.


is the age of legal majority.


of the children have married parents.


have no siblings.


grow up with a single parent.


of children under five come from a migrant background.

At least nine years of schooling

For children in Germany, life begins in earnest at the age of six. Most have started school by this age. About 725,000 children started school in the 2018/19 school year. The first day of school is a big day for everyone and is celebrated in the family. Every child gets a satchel, a pencil case and a ‘school cone’ filled with sweets and little presents. Education is compulsory in Germany. Every child must attend school for at least nine years.

Strengthening children’s rights

But school is not everything. What do children’s lives look like otherwise? Children have a right to a non-violent upbringing; this has been enshrined in Germany’s Basic Law (constitution) since 2000. In addition, Germany ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child nearly 30 years ago. As a result, the country is committed to ensuring the well-being of all children and protecting their rights. They should be well looked after and grow up in dignity. It also involves respecting their opinions and enabling participation. That children’s rights should also be enshrined in the Basic Law is a question that has been discussed in Germany for a long time. In its coalition agreement, the Federal Government has decided that this should now happen.

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child